A fistula is an abnormal passageway or opening between two organs or areas within the body. Fistulas can develop in various parts of the body and are usually cased by tissue damage that has worn over time, ultimately creating an opening, or a fistula.
Types of Vaginal Fistulas
A fistula that has formed in the wall of the vagina is called a vaginal fistula. Vaginal fistulas may be caused by tissue damage that has occurred as a result of previous surgery, radiation treatment, inflammation due to inflammatory bowel disease, or childbirth. Types of vaginal fistulas may include:
Vesicovaginal fistula - A vaginal fistula that abnormally connects to the bladder.
Rectovaginal fistula - A vaginal fistula that abnormally connects to the rectum.
Urethrovaginal fistula - A vaginal fistula that abnormally connects to the urethra.
Symptoms of Vaginal Fistulas
Vaginal fistulas are generally painless but symptoms may include:
- Urinary or fecal incontinence
- Vaginal discharge
- Inflamed or infected vaginal area
Diagnosis of Vaginal Fistulas
To diagnose a fistula, a doctor will review all symptoms and conduct a physical examination. An intravenous pyelogram, or a dye test to measure the amount of fluid leakage may be performed. Additional tests may include:
- Blood tests
Treatment of Vaginal Fistulas
Treatments for a vaginal fistula may vary and may include medication and possible diet restriction, especially for a rectovaginal fistula, to lessen the amount of stool flow and help the affected area heal. Fistulas that do not respond to other treatment may require surgery to repair the damaged tissue and close up the opening or passageway between the organs. With proper treatment, a fistula can be corrected or healed and should not reoccur.
- National Institutes of Health
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
- Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development
- U.S. Department of Health & Human Services
- U.S. National Library of Medicine